IoTXperts
Your IoT Solution


GLOSSARY 

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1xEV-DO

1 times Evolution-Data Optimized (used in ANSI-2000 CDMA).

1xRTT

1 times Radio Transmission Technology (used in ANSI-2000 CDMA).

2.4 GHz

A short-range wireless band commonly used in wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and ZigBee.

2G

The second generation of GSM cellular technology that improved performance by adding to the cellular radio spectrum to help solve coverage issues and drops in signal due to urban obstacles. It was also the turning point in moving from analogue transmission methods to digital, adding digital encryption and paving the way for cellular data usage.

3G

The third generation of GSM cellular technology, offering substantially improved data transfer rates over its predecessor, 2G. While the original release of 3G used the UMTS method, improvements have been made to increase capacity and data speeds with additional protocols including HSPA.

3GPP

Third Generation Partnership Project (GSM family of technologies).

3GPP2

Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (CDMA family of technologies).

 4G

The fourth generation of GSM cellular technology and the latest upgrade to the GSM network, providing greater data transfer speeds. 4G is also referred to as LTE.

6LoWPAN

A communication protocol that compresses Ipv6 packages for small, low power-devices to let them communicate within the Internet of Things.

802.11ah

New Wi-Fi protocol that uses sub 1 GHz license-exempt bands as opposed to conventional Wi-Fi that operates in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands.

A

AAA

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (see also RADIUS).

ACaaS

Access Control as a Service.

Acceleration Sensing

A MEMS concept referring to the increase in movement of an object from one point to another along a straight line or axis. Typical applications include remote control, pointing devices, gesture recognition, fitness monitoring equipment, etc.

Accelerometer

A tool that measures changes in gravitational acceleration in the unit it may be installed in. Accelerometers are used to measure acceleration, tilt, and vibration in many devices.

Access Control

A system that determines who, when, and where people are allowed to enter or exit a facility or area. The traditional form of access control is the use of door locks, but modern access control may include electronic systems and wireless locks. Access control may also apply to cybersecurity.

Access Control as a Service (ACaaS)

A recurring fee-based system where a facility manager outsources electronic access control to a third party. Each facility need not maintain a dedicated server.

Access Point

A Wi-Fi node that allows users entry to a network, typically a LAN.

Active Sensor

A sensing device that requires an external source of power to operate.

Actuator

A device that introduces motion by converting electrical energy into mechanical energy in an electromechanical system. (An actuator may also stop motion by clamping or locking.) A dynamo is an example of an actuator.

ADAS

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

 BAN

Body Area Network.

Band

A range of frequencies used by a technology for communication purposes. For example, the 2.4 MHz band is used for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth communication.

Beacons

 Low-cost devices that communicate with smartphone apps indoors, without the need for GPS. Beacons use BLE and are key enablers for the smart retail category, triggering messages as consumers pass through locations or near products.

Big Data

 Data sets so large that they cannot be used with traditional database tools. Big data often requires massively parallel computing resources to access, curate and analyze. Big data analysis techniques are crucial to such disciplines as spotting business trends and simulation.

Bluetooth

 Short-range wireless technology standard which operates on the 2.4 MHz band. Bluetooth can be used for sending both data and audio, with popular uses including wireless headsets and cordless keyboards. Bluetooth devices can be set up with different hardware profiles to help perform specific tasks, for example audio adapter, audio headset, serial, and keyboard profiles.

Bluetooth 4.0 (BLE)

 The latest iteration of Bluetooth, also called Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). It offers lower power use for portable devices and new profiles including Bluetooth Mesh, a Bluetooth topology that allows devices to be connected together, sending/repeating commands from the hub to any connected device. Apple’s iBeacon is an example of a BLE application, and BLE as many potential uses for IoT devices.

Bluetooth LE (BLE)

 Bluetooth Low Energy.

Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)

 The latest iteration of Bluetooth, also called Bluetooth 4.0. It offers lower power use for portable devices and new profiles including Bluetooth Mesh, a Bluetooth topology that allows devices to be connected together, sending/repeating commands from the hub to any connected device. Apple’s iBeacon is an example of a BLE application, and BLE as many potential uses for IoT devices.

Body Area Network (BAN)

A wireless network of wearable computing devices and physiological sensors, which may even be embedded inside the body. A BAN may also be referred to as a WBAN (wireless body area network) or a BSN (body sensor network). A key use case for BANs is e-Health applications.

C 

CAN

Controller Area Network.

CAN Bus

A message-based, multi-master serial protocol for transmitting and receiving vehicle data within a Controller Area Network (CAN). Sometimes written as “CANbus,” the CAN Bus connects multiple Electronic Control Units (ECUs) also known as nodes. Designed initially for automotive applications in 1983, the CAN Bus can be adapted to aerospace, commercial vehicles, industrial automation, and medical equipment.

Card Not Present (CNP)

The type of credit transaction where the merchant never sees the actual card. CNP has the obvious potential for fraud but is vital for newer services such as contactless mobile payments.

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access. Digital cellular phone service method that separates multiple transmissions over a finite frequency allocation using Spread Spectrum techniques (concept invented and patented by Hedy Lamar).

Cellular Modem

Allows a device to receive Internet access over the cellular mobile networks. Devices can also be configured to remotely connect to a server or device to enable off site access and data collection.

Cellular Router

Allows connected devices to access servers and devices by making an IP connection through the cellular mobile network. Routers allow for multiple devices to be connected and controlled, while built in Open VPN, IPSEC, PPTP, and L2TP, and offer extra device and data transfer security to keep your information safe.

Chief IoT Officer (CIoT)

One of the CxO class of corporate officers, the CIoT coordinates the integration of IoT into the enterprise. Successful CIoTs will break down silos between disciplines such as big data, data analytics, security, communications protocols, etc.

CIoT

Chief IoT Officer.

Class 1 Bluetooth

Offers a greater wireless data transfer distance (over 100m, up to 1km) through using greater power consumption (100mW).

Class 2 Bluetooth

Short-range wireless data transmission (10-20m) which has low power consumption of around 2.5mW.

Dashboard

A user interface that presents key information in a summarized form, often as graphs or other widgets. Derived from the classic automobile dashboard, the design of the interface depends on what information needs to be monitored or measured.

Data Center

A collective term for the physical site, network elements, systems, etc., that supports computing and network services.

Data Janitor

A subtask of data science concerned with the cleaning up of dirty or duplicative data. Oftentimes the janitor must get data into the correct columns and sort it.

Data Lake

Coined by Pentaho CTO James Dixon, a data lake is a massive data repository, designed to hold raw data until it’s needed and to retain data attributes so as not to preclude any future uses or analysis. The data lake is stored on relatively inexpensive hardware, and Hadoop can be used to manage the data, replacing OLAP as a means to answer specific questions. Sometimes referred to as an “enterprise data hub,” the data lake and its retention of native formats sits in contrast to the traditional data warehouse concept.

Data Scientist

A job that combines statistics and programming, using languages such as R, to make sense of massive data sets. IoT sensors, for example, create mountains of data, and the data scientist’s role is to extract valuable information and detect anomalies.

Data-Driven Decision Management (DDDM)

An approach to business governance valuing decisions that can be backed up with verifiable data.

Datakinesis

A termed coined by Marc Blackmer, datakinesis occurs when an action taken in cyberspace has a result in the physical world. Industrial Control Systems, for example, are vulnerable to datakinetic attacks where physical equipment such as valves and sensors are compromised and damaged by hackers. Stuxnet is one such example.

DDS

Digital Data Storage. This format is used to store computer data on audio tape. It was developed by HP and Sony in 1989 and is based on the digital audio tape (DAT) format and was a widely used technology in the 1990s.

De-identification

The stripping away of personally identifiable information from data prior to its use. The process must include the removal of both direct identifiers (name, email address, etc.) and the proper handling of quasi-identifiers (sex, marital status, profession, postal code, etc.).

Degrees of Freedom (DoF)

An engineering concept used in MEMS that describes the directions in which an object can move and generally the number of independent variables in a dynamic system.

E-Health

Or eHealth, telehealth, telemedicine, and related to mHealth. This is the support of medical processes and applications through information and computer technologies. It can include the gathering and communication of data as well as automated responses of certain devices and processes.

EAN

European Article Number. This is used to mark and identify products. Since 2009, it is also called GTIN (Global Trade Item Number). The number is usually found beneath barcodes and consists of up to 13 digits (EAN 13 barcode).

ECU

Electronic Control Unit.

EDGE

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution.

Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

Also known as a node, an Electronic Control Unit is a device, such as a sensor or actuator, that is connected to other devices via a CAN Bus. A vehicle can contain dozens of ECUs for functions such as mirror adjustment, window power, airbags, cruise control, entertainment, and, most significantly, engine control. To form a CAN, two or more ECUs are needed.

Embedded Device Hacking

The exploiting of vulnerabilities in embedded software to gain control of the device.

Embedded Firmware

The flash memory chip that stores specialized software running in a chip in an embedded device to control its functions.

Embedded Software

Specialized programming in a chip or on firmware in an embedded device to control its functions.

Embedded System Security

The reduction of vulnerabilities and protection against threats in software running on embedded devices.

Embrace, Extend, and Extinguish

A strategy associated with Microsoft to defeat open standards with proprietary extensions. Many IoT projects are open source, so this strategy would be anathema to open development.

Facility

A structure designed and constructed for a particular purpose, such as a medical facility.

FAKRA

Fachnormenausschuss Kraftfahrzeugindustrie. This is a type of SMB connector used in the automotive industry for connecting coaxial RF connectors which uses snap on connectors.

FDMA

Frequency Division Multiple Access.

Firmware

Programming that’s written to the read-only memory (ROM) of a computing device. Firmware, which is added at the time of manufacturing, is used to run user programs on the device.

Firmware Over-the-Air (FOTA)

The process of updating a mobile phone’s operating system and software over the network, rather than having the consumer come into a service center for updates.

Fitness Band

A type of activity tracker worn on the wrist, with sensors specifically related to exercise and activity measuring. In contrast to a smartwatch that may include fitness/activity tracking features, a “fitness band” is primarily dedicated to fitness.

Fleet Management (FM)

A broad term referencing a range of solutions for vehicle-related applications. An FM solution is typically a vehicle-based system that incorporates data logging, satellite positioning, and data communication to a back-office application.

FM

Fleet Management.

Fog Computing or Fogging

Also known as fogging, this is a distributed computing infrastructure in which some application services are handled at the network edge in a smart device and some application services are handled in a remote data center — in the cloud.

Form Factor

The physical size, pin-out, and configuration of a component. A family range of module, for example, may include 2G, 3G, and 4G variants to allow PCB designers to design in one module but allow for future upgrades through the product family’s road map.

Galileo

Developed by the European Union and Space Agency, Galileo is a global positioning constellation of satellites which is still in development and will be made up of 30 satellites (27 operations and thee active spares).

Gateway

A link between two computer systems or programs. This way they can share information with each other. The router for your home Internet is one type of gateway.

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

A wireless communications standard on 2G and 3G cellular networks which supports a number of bandwidths and provides data rates of 56-114 kbps. As cellular companies move to more advanced networks, GPRS networks may be more cost-effective for IoT networks.

Geofence

A virtual border applied to a physical space. For example, geofencing might be defined around a nursery, and when a mobile device crosses the nursery boundary, an alert is generated. Geofences may be dynamically created and in a telematics application can encompass entire neighborhoods or cities.

Geographic Information System (GIS)

The combination of hardware, software, and data that captures, manages, analyzes, and presents many kinds of geographic data. GIS and location intelligence applications can be the foundation for location-enabled services.

GeoJSON

A dialect of JSON that describes physical places. Features modeled by GeoJSON are points, line strings, polygons, and multipart groups of these types (MultiPoint, MultiLineString, MultiPolygon). Numerous mapping and GIS software packages employ GeoJSON.

Geotagging

The process of tagging a photo, video, or other types of media with coordinates, thus marking it with a location.

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node (see also SGSN).

GIS

Geographic Information System.

Global System for Mobile communication (GSM)

This is the most widely used digital cellular network and the basis for mobile communication such as phone calls and the short message service (SMS).

HaaS

Hadoop as a Service.

Hadoop

A Java-based, distributed programming framework for processing large data sets. An application can be broken down into numerous small parts, called fragments or blocks, that can be run on any node in the cluster. Hadoop is free and part of the Apache project, sponsored by the Apache Software Foundation.

Hadoop as a Service (Haas)

The running of Hadoop in the Cloud, requiring no local hardware or IT infrastructure. The service is typically elastic, allowing the adding or removal of nodes depending on user needs.

Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)

The primary distributed storage used by Hadoop applications. A HDFS cluster has a NameNode that manages the file system metadata and DataNodes to store the actual data.

Haptic Technology or Haptics

Also referred to as Haptics or “touch feedback,” haptic technology applies tactile sensations to human interactions with machines. The simplest example is the actuator that vibrates a cell phone, but more advanced haptics can detect the pressure applied to a sensor, affecting the response.

HDFS

Hadoop Distributed File System.

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Sometimes grouped with refrigeration as HVACR, these systems cover both vehicular and indoor building comfort control.

HEM

Home Energy Management.

HEMS

Home Energy Management System.

Heterogeneous Network (HetNet)

Small cell networks using both macro and small cells. HetNets allow mobile operators to better utilize their data networks’ capacity.

I 

IaaS

Infrastructure as a Service.

iBeacon

A technology introduced by Apple that uses sensors to locate iOS or Android devices indoors and can send them notifications via Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). This can be also used in stores or museums to give further information about item nearby.

ICCID

Integrated Circuit Chip Identifier.

Identifier

Also just ID, this marks objects for clear identification. Identifiers are usually letters, words, symbols, or numbers that can also be used to create a code that reveals a definite identity after it is decoded.

Identity

Recognizable attributes that are linked to an object, a person, etc. Those attributes expose the entity and allow for clear identification. If two things have the exact same attributes, they usually have the same identity, and they can’t be distinguished from each other.

Identity of Things (IDoT)

An area that involves assigning unique identifiers with associated metadata to devices and objects (things), enabling them to connect and communicate effectively with other entities over the Internet.

IEEE 802.11

The family of specifications developed by the IEEE for wireless LAN (WLAN) communications, first adopted in 1997. The addition of a letter, such as 802.11b, indicates a particular specification.

IEEE 802.11ac

Approved in January 2014, this is a wireless standard for high-throughput wireless local area networks (WLANs) on the 5 GHz band. In contrast to the four MIMO spatial streams in 802.11n, the 802.11ac standard supports eight.

IEEE 802.11n

Builds on previous 802.11 standards to use multiple antennas to increase data rates, adding MIMO to the physical layer. The full specification name is 802.11n-2009, which is an amendment to IEEE 802.11-2007.

IEEE 802.11p

Amends wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE) to the IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi standard. The amendment defines a way to wirelessly exchange data without the need to establish a basic service set (BSS), since links to roadside infrastructure may be available only for a limited amount of time. 802.11p uses channels of 10 MHz bandwidth in the 5.9 GHz band.

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)

 Used as a lightweight alternative to XML for organizing data, JSON is text-based and human-readable. The format uses “name : object” pairs to organize the data.

JSON

 JavaScript Object Notation.

Kevin Ashton

The man who first coined the phrase “Internet of Things” in 1999. Mr. Ashton cofounded MIT’s Auto-ID Center which created a global standard system for RFID.


L

L2TP

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol. This is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs) or as part of the delivery of services by ISPs. It does not provide any encryption or confidentiality by itself, relying on an encryption protocol that it passes within the tunnel to provide privacy.
LED

Light-Emitting Diode.
Light-Emitting Diode (LED)

A semiconductor that generates light via electroluminescence. Infrared LEDs can be used for the remote control units of many consumer electronics.
Link Budget

An accounting of all of the losses in a wireless communication system. In order to “close the link,” enough RF energy has to make it from the transmitter to the receiver. (Losses include antennas, structural attenuation, propagation loss, etc.)
LLN

Low power and Lossy Networks.
Local Area Network (LAN)

A network of devices in relatively close proximity, prior to the point of transmission over leased telecommunication lines. The two most common communications technologies used in LANs are Ethernet and Wi-Fi.
Long Term Evolution (LTE) / 4G

LTE, often referred to as 4G, is the latest cellular network type, offering superior data transfer speeds than its predecessor, 3G, and it’s part of the GSM upgrade path. Portable devices can now access data at high-speed broadband speeds through LTE. Depending on where in the world you are, LTE may be implemented using different frequency bands. For example, European LTE uses 700/800/900/1800/2600 MHz bands, where North America uses 700/750/800/850/1900/1700/2100(AWS)/2500/2600 MHz.superior data transfer speeds than its predecessor, 3G, and it
Low power and Lossy Networks (LLN)

These networks are comprised of embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources. LLNs are typically optimized for energy efficiency, may use IEEE 802.15.4, and can be applied to industrial monitoring, building automation, connected homes, healthcare, environmental monitoring, urban sensor networks, asset tracking, and more.
Low Power Wide Area (LPWA)

These networks are built specifically for M2M communications and offer long-range, low-power consumption. They solve cost and battery-life issues that cellular technology cannot, and LPWA networks solve range issues that technologies like Bluetooth or BLE struggle with.
Low Power Wireless Sensor Network

A group of spatially distributed, independent devices that collect data by measuring physical or environmental conditions with minimal power consumption.

M

M2M

Machine-to-Machine.

M2P

Machine-to-Person.
Machine Authentication

The authorization of an automated human-to-machine or machine-to-machine (M2M) communication through verification of a digital certificate or digital credentials. Unlike user authentication, the process does not involve any action on the part of a human.
Machine Data

Also known as machine-generated data, this is digital information created by the activity of computers, mobile phones, embedded systems, and other networked devices.
Machine Type Communications (MTC)

A 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standard describing machine-to-machine communications. With a wide range of potential applications, MTC communications is gaining interest among mobile network operators, equipment vendors, specialist companies, and research bodies.
Machine-to-Machine (M2M)

A broad term describing technology that allows for one connected device to communicate and exchange information with another connected device, without the assistance of a human.
Machine-to-Person (M2P)

Describes the analytics for big data in a human readable form (e.g., dashboards).

MapReduce

A parallel processing model for handling extremely large data sets. First, a Map process runs to reduce a data set to key value pairs (in tuples), and then a second Reduce process combines those pairs into a smaller set of tuples. First introduced by Google, MapReduce is a concept central to Hadoop.
MCU

MicroController Unit.
MDN

Mobile Directory Number (used in CDMA — conceptually similar to the MSISDN in GSM).

N

Nagios

Software that monitors IT infrastructures. It includes, for example, immediate problem detection.
Near Field Communication (NFC)

Short-range wireless communication between devices, used in applications such as contactless mobile payments, transport ticketing, and phone-as-key. Using NFC, consumers can pay for retail items simply by bringing their mobile phones into the range of the sensor and confirming the transaction. NFC has been overshadowed in IoT applications by other protocols such as BLE.


Nearables

Coined for the similarity to “wearables,” this describes items with nearby tracking devices, or beacons, attached to them. Nearables can communicate with smart devices, such as smartphones, to let the user interact with objects in their vicinity.

NFC

Near Field Communication.

O

OBE

On-Board Equipment.
On-Board Equipment (OBE)

Components of a Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) implementation located in a moving vehicle, communicating wirelessly with roadside equipment (RSE). OBE applications may interface with other vehicle systems via the CAN Bus.
Open Source

A type of software where the source code is available and can be modified and freely redistributed. Open source is the opposite of closed, proprietary systems. Many developers insist that IoT must have open standards to reach its full potential.
Open VPN

An open-source software application that implements virtual private network (VPN) techniques for creating secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections in routed or bridged configurations and remote access facilities. This is a security method which can be implemented on devices such as cellular routers.
Operational Technology (OT)

As opposed to Information Technology (IT), this refers to technologies associated with control and automation. If IT helps run business processes, OT helps execute the physical interactions that control value creation.

P

PAN

Personal Area Network.
Part 90 Bands

Small parts of the RF spectrum that are made available in small areas to businesses for data or voice communications. Many smart grid providers use part 90 licenses for their wireless data.
Passive Sensor

A device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment.

PCB

Printed Circuit Board.
PDR

Pedestrian Dead Reckoning.
PDU

Power Distribution Unit.
Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR)

A method of indoor positioning that uses a last known waypoint, distance, and direction of travel to calculate the current location of a moving person. PDR may be used to supplement other positioning methods such as GPS. Dead reckoning is subject to cumulative errors.
Pen Testing or Pentest

Penetration Testing.


Penetration Testing

A method of evaluating the security of a network or system from internal or external threats. Also called pentests, this is part of a full security audit and typically exploits a combination of weaknesses to gain access and then evaluates the capability of the network’s defenders to detect and respond to the penetration.
PERS

Personal Emergency Response System.

Q

Quality of Service (QoS)

Different services that regulate data transfer priorities to identify and control the quality with which a service can be accessed by users. This is especially important if a certain quality (for example, bandwidth) has to be guaranteed to ensure the functionality of a service.
Quantified Self

A movement that started in 2007 that uses modern technical advances to gain more insight into one’s own life by collecting data relating to, among other things, health and emotions. This data is then used to improve a person’s lifestyle and state of mind.
Quantum Sensor

A sensor that takes advantage of quantum correlations to produce measurements beyond what are possible with traditional sensors. Taking advantage of unique behavior of systems at the atomic scale, quantum sensors use wonder materials such as graphene and quantum dots.

R

Radio Frequency (RF)

Radio waves. This term generally means “wireless communication” when referred to in IoT discussions.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Generally speaking, this is the use of strong radio waves to “excite” enough current in a small tag to send a radio transmission back. It works over short range and only for small amounts of data.
RADIUS

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. RADIUS servers are responsible for receiving user connection requests, authenticating the user, and returning all configuration information necessary for the client to deliver service.
Remote Monitoring and Control

The increasingly automated monitoring and control of devices, technologies, or processes. Wireless devices which send information gathered directly to control centers are often used to achieve this.
Remote Sensing

The use of various technologies to make observations and measurements at a target that is usually at a distance or on a scale beyond those observable to the naked eye.
REST

Representational State Transfer. An architecture for web standards, especially for the HTTP protocol. It is supposed to simplify the design of network applications compared to, for example, SOAP.
RESTful Web Services

Web services that are realized within the REST architecture are called RESTful Web Services. Also see REST.
RF Geolocation

A general term that applies to “finding” a radio transceiver with another. GPS is a good example. A good rule to remember is that to do RF geolocation well, you need a large RF bandwidth.

RFID

Radio Frequency Identification.

S

SaaS

Software as a Service.

SBC

Single Board Computer.

SCADA

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.

SDN

Software-Defined Networking.

SDO

Standards Development Organization.

Sensor

A device used to measure a specific characteristic of the surrounding environment, such as temperature. The use of sensors and actuators to connect things to the physical world is a key component of IoT. A properly implemented sensor ideally should be sensitive only to the characteristic being measured and should not interfere with what’s being measured nor be influenced by other characteristics.

Sensor Analytics

Statistical analysis of data that is created by wired or wireless sensors.

Sensor Fusion

The process of combining and processing the raw data coming out of multiple sensors to generate usable information. For example, because of the quantity of sensors, a NASA un-crewed vehicle on Mars requires sensor fusion to detect if there has been a failure.

Sensor Hub

A technology that connects sensor data and processes them. This way the hub does part of a processors data-processing job.

Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)

A specification developed by Motorola for use in short distance communication between sensors and microcontrollers such as Arduino. In contrast to the I2C specification, the full-duplex SPI runs at a higher data rate and is appropriate for applications such as Ethernet and memory cards.

T

TaaS

Things as a Service.

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access.

Telematics

An IT concept regarding the long-distance transmission of data. In vehicles on the move, telematics refers to the integrated use of telecommunications and informatics, such as dashboard screens that show the vehicles current position on a map or in centralized tracking applications.

TETRA

Terrestrial Trunked Radio. This operates as a two-way transceiver and is popularly used by the emergency services as well as on transport such as rail and on marine vessels. It operates on low frequencies split over 4 channels (ranging between 380 and 400 MHz for emergency services and higher for civilian use). The use of low frequencies allows for far greater transmission distances but lower data transfer rates.

Thing, in the Internet of Things

An entity or physical object that has a unique identifier, an embedded system, and the ability to transfer data over a network.

Thingbot

Something with an embedded system and an Internet connection that has been co-opted by a hacker to become part of a botnet of networked things.

ThingManager

A platform for managing real-world Things and their digital representations.

Things as a Service (TaaS)

The concept of delivering IoT functionality without the end user having to operate or maintain extensive hardware. For example, services such as Hadoop can be delivered in the cloud to receive and process the data generated by IoT-enabled sensor networks.

THNGMNGR

ThingManager.

Thread

A simplified IPv6-based mesh networking protocol geared to the smart home vertical. Developed on low-cost 802.15.4 chipsets, Thread is designed for extremely low power consumption.

U

UART

Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter.

UBI

Usage-Based Insurance.

Ubiquitous Computing

The concept of embedding microprocessors in everyday things so they can communicate information continuously. Ubiquitous devices are expected to be constantly connected. Utility smart meters are an example of ubiquitous computing, replacing manual meter-readers with devices that can report usage and modify power settings on ubiquitous appliances.


Ultra-Wide Band

A “spark gap” transmitter that emits a very weak, very wide (in frequency) pulse of RF energy. This signal is used mostly for localizing signals. Wide signal bandwidths are good for measuring distance.

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)

The unique identifier that makes content addressable on the Internet by uniquely targeting items, such as text, video, images, and applications.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

A particular type of URI that targets web pages so that when a browser requests them, they can be found and served to users.

Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART)

A microchip controlling a computer’s interface to serial devices, converting the bytes it receives from the computer along parallel circuits into a single serial bit stream. A 16550 UART has a 16-byte buffer.


Universal Authentication

A network identity-verification method that allows users to move from site to site securely without having to enter identifying information multiple times.

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)

Also referred to as 3G cellular technology, this is the third iteration of the GSM. It achieves improved data transfer speeds over 2G by adding additional higher frequency bands (2100MHz).

V

V2I

Vehicle-to-Infrastructure.


V2V

Vehicle-to-Vehicle.

V2X

A shorthand to combine Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I), and Vehicle-to-Anything.
Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I)

The communication of smart cars and commercial vehicles with surrounding sensors, such as signal phase and timing (SPaT) information.

Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V)

Using a region of the 5.9 GHz band, V2V systems allow vehicles to communicate with each other and with roadside stations. Networks of vehicles can help avoid congestion, find better routes, and aid law enforcement.

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication (V2V Communication)

The wireless transmission of data between motor vehicles.

Vibration Sensing

A MEMS concept referring to the detection of periodic acceleration and deceleration. Typical applications include structural health monitoring, acoustic event triggering, and seismic equipment.

Video Motion Detection (VMD)

A technology that analyzes image data and the differences in a series of images. VMD makes event-driven video surveillance possible, but the potential for false positives creates challenges in storage and alarm verification.

Video Surveillance as a Service (VSaaS)

A managed data service that transfers the monitoring and storage of video to the cloud. VCaaS streamlines security operations by centralizing IT and requires no capital investment in servers but has heavy bandwidth requirements.

Virtual Power Plant (VvPP)

In a virtual power plant, different, decentralized power generating plants are connected and are monitored and controlled from a single control center. This way, virtual power plants can integrate smaller energy providers

WAN

Wide Area Network.

WAVE

Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments.

Wearables or Wearable Technology

These are technologies or computers integrated into articles of clothing or accessories that can be worn. Often, the wearble tech is used to quantify a physical process (such as heartbeat monitoring) or to augment human capabilities. Wearables may also be used to control external things, for example, with gestures. Because of the impracticality of wires to transmit sensor data, wearables are almost universally wireless, using a variety of communication protocols such as BLE. Examples include smartwatches, fitness bands, and Google Glasses.

Wi-Fi

Wireless Fidelity. This is a common form of local area network which operates on the 2.4 GHz band. Its popularity has led to a wide variety of devices to become Wi-Fi enabled, including smartphones, cameras, vehicles, and household appliances. Wi-Fi can be embedded into a device through designing in a Wi-Fi module.

Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE)

The IEEE 802.11p standard required to support Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) applications. ITS applications include data exchange between moving vehicles and between vehicle and ITS-enabled roadside infrastructure.

Wristop

A contraction of wristband and desktop, a wristop computer refers to a wearable that goes on the wrist, such as a smartwatch.

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Z-Wave

Wireless communication technology used in security systems and also business and home automation.

ZigBee

Small range wireless networking protocol that primarily operates on the 2.4 GHz frequency spectrum. ZigBee devices connect in a mesh topology, forwarding messages from controlling nodes to slaves, which repeat commands to other connected nodes. Due to its low power consumption and low data rate, ZigBee has been used in applications such as traffic management, wireless light switches, and industrial device monitoring.